Until the late 20th century, there were no creditable scientific forecasts that physical immortality was obtainable. As late as 1952, the editorial staff of the Syntopicon found in their compilation of the Great Books of the Western World, that "The philosophical issue concerning immortality cannot be separated from issues concerning the existence and nature of man's soul." Thus, the vast majority of speculation regarding immortality before the 21st century was regarding the nature of the afterlife.Spiritual immortality is the unending existence of a person from a nonphysical source, or in a nonphysical state, such as a soul. Specifically "soul immortality" is a belief that is expressed in nearly every religious tradition. However any doctrine in this area misleads without a prior definition of "soul". Another problem is that "soul" is often confused and used synonymously or interchangeably with "spirit".In both Western and Eastern religions, the spirit is an energy or force that transcends the mortal body, and returns to: (1) the spirit realm whether to enjoy heavenly bliss or suffer eternal torment in hell, or; (2) the cycle of life, directly or indirectly depending on the tradition.The world's major religions hold a number of perspectives on spiritual immortality.Ancient Greek religionIn ancient Greek religion, immortality originally always included an eternal union of body and soul, as can been seen in Homer, Hesiod, and various other ancient texts. The soul was considered to have an eternal existence in Hades, but without the body the soul was considered dead. Although almost everybody had nothing to look forward to but an eternal existence as a disembodied dead soul, a number of men and women were considered to have gained physical immortality and brought to live forever in either Elysium, the Islands of the Blessed, heaven, the ocean or literally right under the ground. Among these were Amphiaraus, Ganymede, Ino, Iphigenia, Menelaus, Peleus, and a great part of those who fought in the Trojan and Theban wars. Some were considered to have died and been resurrected before they achieved physical immortality. Asclepius, was killed by Zeus only to be resurrected and transformed into a major deity. Achilles after being killed was snatched from his funeral pyre by his divine mother Thetis, resurrected, and brought to an immortal existence in either Leuce, the Elysian plains, or the Islands of the Blessed. Memnon, who was killed by Achilles, seems to have a received a similar fate. Alcmene, Castor, Heracles, and Melicertes, were also among the figures sometimes considered to have been resurrected to physical immortality. According to Herodotus' Histories, the 7th century BC sage Aristeas of Proconnesus, was first found dead, after which his body disappeared from a locked room. Later he was found not only to have been resurrected but to have gained immortality. The philosophical idea of an immortal soul was a belief first appearing with either Pherecydes or the Orphics, and most importantly advocated by Plato and his followers. This, however, never became the general norm in Hellenistic thought. As may be witnessed even into the Christian era, not least by the complaints of various philosophers over popular beliefs, many or perhaps most traditional Greeks maintained the conviction that certain individuals were resurrected from the dead and made physically immortal and that for the rest of us, we could only look forward to an existence as disembodied and dead, though everlasting, souls. The parallel between these traditional beliefs and the later resurrection of Jesus was not lost on the early Christians, as Justin Martyr argued: "when we say ... Jesus Christ, our teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propose nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you consider sons of Zeus." (1 Apol. 21). BuddhismBuddhism teaches that there is a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth and that the process is according to the qualities of a person's actions. This constant process of becoming ceases at the fruition of Bodhi (enlightenment) at which a being is no longer subject to causation (karma) but enters into a state that the Buddha called amata (deathlessness).According to the philosophical premise of the Buddha, the initiate to Buddhism who is to be "shown the way to Immortality (amata)", wherein liberation of the mind (cittavimutta) is effectuated through the expansion of wisdom and the meditative practices of sati and samādhi, must first be educated away from his former ignorance-based (avijja) materialistic proclivities in that he "saw any of these forms, feelings, or this body, to be my Self, to be that which I am by nature".Thus, desiring a soul or ego (ātman) to be permanent is a prime consequence of ignorance, itself the cause of all misery and the foundation of the cycle of rebirth (saṃsāra). Form and consciousness being two of the five skandhas, or aggregates of ignorance , Buddhism teaches that physical immortality is neither a path to enlightenment, nor an attainable goal even the gods which can live for eons eventually die. Upon enlightenment, the "karmic seeds" (saṅkhāras or sanskaras) for all future becoming and rebirth are exhausted. After biological death an arhat, or buddha, enters into parinirvana, a state of deathlessness due to the absence of rebirth, which resulted from cessation of wantings.Christianity
Christian theology holds that Adam and Eve lost physical immortality for themselves and all their descendants in the Fall of Man, though this initial "imperishability of the bodily frame of man" was "a preternatural condition".
Christians who profess the Nicene Creed believe that every dead person (whether they believed in Christ or not) will be resurrected from the dead, and this belief is known as Universal resurrection.Bible passages like 1 Corinthians 15 are interpreted as teaching that the resurrected body will, like the present body, be both physical (but a renewed and non-decaying physical body) and spiritual.Contrary to common belief, there is no biblical support of "soul immortality" as such in the New Testament, see Soul in the Bible. The theme in the Bible is "resurrection life" which imparts immortality, not about "soul" remaining after death. Luther and others rejected Calvin's idea of "soul immortality". Specific imagery of resurrection into immortal form is found in the Pauline letters:Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.
So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory.
O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?
The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law.
But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord. In Romans 2:6–7 Paul declares that God "will render to every man according to his deeds: To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life", but then in Romans 3 warns that no one will ever meet this standard with their own power but that Jesus did it for us.Born-again Christians believe that after the Last Judgment, those who have been "born again" will live forever in the presence of God, and those who were never "born again" will be abandoned to never-ending consciousness of guilt, separation from God, and punishment for sin. Eternal death is depicted in the Bible as a realm of constant physical and spiritual anguish in a lake of fire, and a realm of darkness away from God. Some see the fires of Hell as a theological metaphor, representing the inescapable presence of God endured in absence of love for God; others suggest that Hell represents complete destruction of both the physical body and of spiritual existence.N.T. Wright, a theologian and former Bishop of Durham, has said many people forget the physical aspect of what Jesus promised. He told Time: "Jesus' resurrection marks the beginning of a restoration that he will complete upon his return. Part of this will be the resurrection of all the dead, who will 'awake', be embodied and participate in the renewal. John Polkinghorne, a physicist and a priest, has put it this way: 'God will download our software onto his hardware until the time he gives us new hardware to run the software again for ourselves.' That gets to two things nicely: that the period after death (the Intermediate state) is a period when we are in God's presence but not active in our own bodies, and also that the more important transformation will be when we are again embodied and administering Christ's kingdom." This kingdom will consist of Heaven and Earth "joined together in a new creation", he said.Roman CatholicismCatholic Christians teach that there is a supernatural realm called Purgatory where souls who have died in a state of grace but have yet to expiate venial sins or temporal punishments due to past sins are cleansed before they are admitted into Heaven. The Catholic Church also professes a belief in the resurrection of the body. It is believed that, before the Final Judgement, the souls of all who have ever lived will be reunited with their resurrected body. In the case of the righteous, this will result in a glorified body which can reside in Heaven. The damned, too, shall reunite body and soul, but shall remain eternally in Hell. Seventh-day AdventistsSeventh-day Adventists believe that only God has immortality, and when a person dies, death is a state of unconscious sleep until the resurrection. They base this belief on biblical texts such as Ecclesiastes 9:5 which states "the dead know nothing", and 1 Thessalonians 4:13–18 which contains a description of the dead being raised from the grave at the second coming."And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." The text of Genesis 2:7 clearly states that God breathed into the formed man the "breath of life" and man became a living soul. He did not receive a living soul; he became one. The New King James Bible states that "man became a living being". According to the Scriptures, only man received life in this way from God. Because of this man is the only living creature to have a soul."And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field ... wherein is the breath of life." "Both man and beast ... have all one breath, so that a man hath no preeminence above the beast." Of the many references to soul and spirit in the Bible, never once is either the soul or the spirit declared to be immortal, imperishable or eternal. Indeed only God has immortality (1 Timothy 1:17; 6:16). Adventists teach that the resurrection of the righteous will take place at the second coming of Jesus, at which time they will be restored to life and taken to reside in Heaven.Jehovah's WitnessesJehovah's Witnesses believe the word soul (nephesh or psykhe) as used in the Bible is a person, an animal, or the life a person or animal enjoys. Hence, the soul is not part of man, but is the whole man—man as a living being. Hence, when a person or animal dies, the soul dies, and death is a state of non-existence, based on Psalms 146:4, Ezekiel 18:4, and other passages. Hell(Hades or Sheol) is not a place of fiery torment, but rather the common grave of humankind, a place of unconsciousness. After the final judgment, it is expected that the righteous will receive eternal life and live forever in an Earth turned into a paradise. Another group referenced as "the little flock" of 144,000 people will receive immortality and go to heaven to rule as Kings and Priests. Jehovah's Witnesses make the distinction that those with "eternal life" can die though they do not succumb to disease or old age, whereas immortal ones cannot die by any cause. They teach that Jesus was the first to be rewarded with heavenly immortality, but that Revelation 7:4 and Revelation 14:1, 3 refer to a literal number (144,000) of additional people who will become "self-sustaining", that is, not needing anything outside themselves (food, sunlight, etc.) to maintain their own life. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormonism)
In Latter-day Saint (Mormon) theology, the spirit and the body constitute the human soul. Whereas the human body is subject to death on earth, they believe that the spirit never ceases to exist and that one day the spirits and bodies of all mankind will be reunited again. This doctrine stems from their belief that the resurrection of Jesus Christ grants the universal gift of immortality to every human being.
Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also believe that, prior to their mortal birth, individuals existed as men and women in a spiritual state. That period of life is referred to as the first estate or the Pre-existence. Latter-day Saints cite Biblical scriptures, such as Jeremiah 1:5, as an allusion to the concept that mankind had a preparation period prior to mortal birth: "Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations". Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, provided a description of the afterlife based upon a vision he received, which is recorded within the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint's canonical writings entitled Doctrine and Covenants. According to the 76th section of the LDS scripture, the afterlife consists of three degrees or kingdoms of glory, called theCelestial Kingdom, the Terrestrial Kingdom, and the Telestial Kingdom. Other Biblical scriptures speak of varying degrees of glory, such as 1 Corinthians 15:40-41: "There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star cdiffereth from another star in glory."The few who do not inherit any degree of glory (though they are resurrected) reside in a state called outer darkness, which, though not a degree of glory, is often discussed in this context. Only those known as the "Sons of Perdition" are condemned to this state.Other Christian beliefsThe doctrine of conditional immortality states the human soul is naturally mortal, and that immortality is granted by God as a gift. The doctrine is a "significant minority evangelical view" that has "grown within evangelicalism in recent years". Some sects who hold to the doctrine of baptismal regeneration also believe in a third realm called Limbo, which is the final destination of souls who have not been baptised, but who have been innocent of mortal sin. Souls in Limbo include unbaptised infants and those who lived virtuously but were never exposed to Christianity in their lifetimes. Christian Scientists believe that sin brought death, and that death will be overcome with the overcoming of sin.Hinduism
Hinduism propounds that every living being, be it a human or animal, has a body and a soul (consciousness) and the bridge between the two is the mind (a mixture of both). If there is an imbalance between any of these three components it can result in illness and 'death'. 'Death' as we know it,is the ceasing of the body to function and therefore the soul which is immortal will have to migrate to another body and occupy some-other mind thereby creating consciousness there, be it a human or animal depending upon the 'karma' or 'past deeds' done in the previous physical body/bodies or life/lives. Central to the philosophy of Hinduism is 'BRAHMAN' which is the embodiment of all souls and therefore the ultimate consciousness. BRAHMAN is infinite, has no dimensions, and is embodiment of all knowledge and the absolute truth and therefore the ultimate bliss and enlightenment for all souls. To join BRAHMAN is the ultimate goal of all souls, a soul can only join BRAHMAN upon becoming perfect, until such time the soul will have to keep changing bodies and experience events based on its karma in order to perfect itself and therefore continues the cycle of birth and death. BRAHMAN is also the sum total of the trinity gods (and avatars) worshiped by Hindus viz. 1.Brahma, the creator 2. Vishnu, the protector 3. Shiva or Maheshwara, the destroyer. Brahma is responsible for sending the part of the BRAHMAN which was imperfect to perfect itself on earth and for that purpose created various levels of physical form. Vishnu who is the protector pronounces that one must perform ones DHARMA or duty or follow the laws in-order to obtain good karma and hence graduate to a high physical and mental form and finally join the ultimate BRAHMAN. Maheshwara or Shiva is the god of destruction and 'death' says that just as a new star can only be born upon the destruction of an old star which has been burning bright, just so do we find that only in complete destruction is there creation and that the ultimate truth, immortality and permanence is in the soul which joins the BRAHMAN and that physical matter is recycled over and over again. A soul will have been successful when it stops getting recycled like lowly and unconscious physical matter does. Therefore 'death' is not the end as the soul is immortal and endless.
Differences between Hinduism and Buddhism: 1) Buddha was one of the avatars of Vishnu, the preachings of Buddha from the Hindu perspective represent only a fraction of the whole truth. Buddha preaches that attachment with people was the cause of sorrow when 'death' happens and therefore propagates detachment from people. Hinduism on the other hand does not teach detachment, but stresses duty and how relations with people have to take place based on Dharma or duty. In Hinduism, Lord Shiva explains 'death' to be a journey of the immortal soul in pursuit of 'Moksha' and therefore a fact of life. 2) While Buddhism says retirement into the forest for meditation is to take place starting from childhood, this is viewed as escapism by Hinduism. Hinduism allows for this to happen only after performing all dharmas or duties of ones life, starting from studying scriptures, working to support children and family and taking care of aged parents, and lastly after all the dharma is done retire to the forest and slowly meditate and fast until physical disintegration to reach the ultimate truth or BRAHMAN.Terminology
Hindus believe in an immortal soul which is reincarnated after death. According to Hinduism, people repeat a process of life, death, and rebirth in a cycle called samsara. If they live their life well, their karma improves and their station in the next life will be higher, and conversely lower if they live their life poorly. Eventually after many life times of perfecting its karma, the soul is freed from the cycle and lives in perpetual bliss. There is no eternal torment in Hinduism, temporal existence being harsh enough, although if a soul consistently lives very evil lives, it could work its way down to the very bottom of the cycle. Punarjanma means the birth of a person that pays for all the karma of previous lives in this birth.
Sri Aurobindo states that the Vedic and the post-Vedic rishis (such as Markandeya) attained physical immortality, which includes the ability to change one's shape at will, and create multiple bodies simultaneously in different locations. There are explicit renderings in the Upanishads alluding to a physically immortal state brought about by purification, and sublimation of the 5 elements that make up the body. For example in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (Chapter 2, Verse 12), it is stated "When earth, water fire, air and akasa arise, that is to say, when the five attributes of the elements, mentioned in the books on yoga, become manifest then the yogi's body becomes purified by the fire of yoga and he is free from illness, old age and death."The above phenomenon is possible when the soul reaches enlightenment while the body and mind are still intact, an extreme rarity, and can only be achieved upon the highest most dedication, meditation and consciousness.Certain peculiar practicesThe Aghoris of India consume human flesh in pursuit of immortality and supernatural powers, they call themselves gods and according to them they punish the sinners by rewarding them death on their way to immortality. But it is to be noted that today they only consume the humans who are already dead and only those who wish to be treated this way upon death. They are looked down upon by Brahmins because of their fascination for physical form as opposed to the immortal soul aspect of it. Also vegetarianism which is propagated by hinduism is so completely diregarded in that they even consume humans be it the already dead. They distinguish themselves from other Hindu sects and priests by their alcoholic andcannibalistic rituals. Another view of immortality is traced to the Vedic tradition by the interpretation of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi:That man indeed whom these (contacts)
do not disturb, who is even-minded in
pleasure and pain, steadfast, he is fit
for immortality, O best of men. To Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the verse means, "Once a man has become established in the understanding of the permanent reality of life, his mind rises above the influence of pleasure and pain. Such an unshakable man passes beyond the influence of death and in the permanent phase of life: he attains eternal life ... A man established in the understanding of the unlimited abundance of absolute existence is naturally free from existence of the relative order. This is what gives him the status of immortal life." Islam
And they say [non-believers in Allah], "There is not but our worldly life; we die and live
(i.e., some people die and others live, replacing them) and nothing destroys us except time." And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, their argument is only that they say,
"Bring [back] our forefathers, if you should be truthful."
Say, "Allah causes you to live, then causes you to die; then He will assemble you for the Day of Resurrection,
about which there is no doubt," but most of the people do not know.(Quran, 45:24–26)Muslims believe that everyone will be resurrected after death. Those who believed in Islam and led an evil life will undergo correction in Jahannam (Hell) but once this correction is over, they are admitted to Jannat (Paradise) and attain immortality. Infidels on the other hand and those who committed unforgivable evil will never leave Hell. Some individuals will therefore never taste Heaven.(Quran,002.028) "How can ye reject the faith in Allah?- seeing that ye were without life, and He gave you life; then will He cause you to die, and will again bring you to life; and again to Him will ye return."Muslims believe that the present life is a trial in preparation for the next realm of existence. He says [man says], "Who will give life to bones while they are disintegrated?" Say, "He will give them life who produced them the first time; and He is, of all creation, Knowing." [It is Allah] He who made for you from the green tree, fire, and then from it you ignite. Is not He who created the heavens and the earth Able to create the likes of them? Yes, [it is so]; and He is the Knowing Creator. (Quran, 36:78–81)But those who disbelieve say, "The Hour (i.e., the Day of Judgment) will not come to us." Say, "Yes, by my Lord, it will surely come to you. [Allah is] the Knower of the unseen." Not absent from Him is an atom's weight within the heavens or within the earth or [what is] smaller than that or greater, except that it is in a clear register – That He may reward those who believe and do righteous deeds. Those will have forgiveness and noble provision. But those who strive against Our verses [seeking] to cause failure (i.e., to undermine their credibility) – for them will be a painful punishment of foul nature. (Quran, 34:3–5)JudaismIn both Judaism and Christianity, there is no biblical support of "soul immortality" as such. The focus is on attaining resurrection life after death on the part of the believers.Judaism claims that the righteous dead will be resurrected in the Messianic age with the coming of the messiah. They will then be granted immortality in a perfect world. The wicked dead, on the other hand, will not be resurrected at all. This is not the only Jewish belief about the afterlife. The Tanakh is not specific about the afterlife, so there are wide differences in views and explanations among believers.The Hebrew Bible speaks about Sheol originally a synonym of the grave-the repository of the dead or the cessation of existence until the Resurrection. This doctrine of resurrection is mentioned explicitly only in Daniel although it may be implied in several other texts. New theories arose concerning Sheol during the intertestamental literature. Some Hellenistic Jews postulated that the soul (nefesh ) was really immortal and that Sheol was actually a destination of the dead awaiting the Resurrection, a syncretic form of Platonic Philosophy. By the 2nd century BC, Jews who accepted the Oral Torah had come to believe that those in Sheol awaited the resurrection either in Paradise (in the bosom of Abraham) or in Torment (Tartarus).Shintoism
Shintoists claim that except for those who choose or are dispatched to the underground world of Yomi, every living and non-living being may lose its body, but not its soul (tamashii), and that they live together with mortal souls as an immortal being called Kami. Shinto allows anything to attain Kami status regardless of its existence before becoming Kami. Therefore, even those that do not believe in Shinto may choose to become Kami, as well as things like a rock, or a tree. Some may be reincarnated for various reasons. Many shinto people don't have a say in this topic to begin with. Many of them are xenophobias, and only fear death. For these people, it is hard for them to contribute their opinion, or share their knowledge with others. Little is known about what point the shinto's change their view of death, and at what point they share their wisdom with children, so they can learn and continue with what ever traditions there are.
It is repeatedly stated in Lüshi Chunqiu that death is unavoidable. Henri Maspero noted that many scholarly works frame Taoism as a school of thought focused on the quest for immortality. Isabelle Robinet asserts that Taoism is better understood as a way of life than as a religion, and that its adherents do not approach or view Taoism the way non-Taoist historians have done. ZoroastrianismZoroastrians believe that on the fourth day after death, the human soul leaves the body and the body remains as an empty shell. Souls would go to either heaven or hell; these concepts of the afterlife in Zoroastrianism may have influenced Abrahamic religions. The word immortal is driven from the month "Amurdad", meaning "deathless" in Persian, in the Iranian calendar (near the end of July). The month of Amurdad or Amertata is celebrated in Persian culture as ancient Persians believed the "Angel of Immortality" won over the "Angel of Death" in this month. Ethics of immortality The possibility of clinical immortality raises a host of medical, philosophical, and religious issues and ethical questions. These include persistent vegetative states, the nature of personality over time, technology to mimic or copy the mind or its processes, social and economic disparities created by longevity, and survival of the heat death of the universe.Undesirability of immortalityThe doctrine of immortality is essential to many of the world's religions. Narratives from Christianity and Islam assert that immortality is not desirable to the unfaithful:The poor man died and was carried away by the angels to be with Abraham. The rich man also died and was buried. In Hades, where he was being tormented, he looked up and saw Abraham far away with Lazarus by his side. He called out, 'Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue; for I am in agony in these flames.' But Abraham said, 'Child, remember that during your lifetime you received your good things, and Lazarus in like manner evil things; but now he is comforted here, and you are in agony. Besides all this, between you and us a great chasm has been fixed, so that those who might want to pass from here to you cannot do so, and no one can cross from there to us.' Those who are wretched shall be in the Fire: There will be for them therein (nothing but) the heaving of sighs and sobs: They will dwell therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as thy Lord willeth: for thy Lord is the (sure) accomplisher of what He planneth. And those who are blessed shall be in the Garden: They will dwell therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as thy Lord willeth: a gift without break. The modern mind has addressed the undesirability of immortality. Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov commented, "There is nothing frightening about an eternal dreamless sleep. Surely it is better than eternal torment in Hell and eternal boredom in Heaven."Physical immortality has also been imagined as a form of eternal torment, as in Mary Shelley's short story "The Mortal Immortal", the protagonist of which witnesses everyone he cares about dying around him. Jorge Luis Borges explored the idea that life gets its meaning from death in the short story "The Immortal"; an entire society having achieved immortality, they found time becoming infinite, and so found no motivation for any action. In his book "Thursday's Fictions", and the stage and film adaptations of it, Richard James Allen tells the story of a woman named Thursday who tries to cheat the cycle of reincarnation to get a form of eternal life. At the end of this fantastical tale, her son, Wednesday, who has witnessed the havoc his mother's quest has caused, forgoes the opportunity for immortality when it is offered to him. Likewise, the novel Tuck Everlasting depicts immortality as "falling off the wheel of life" and is viewed as a curse as opposed to a blessing.University of Cambridge philosopher Simon Blackburn, in his essay "Religion and Respect," writes, ". . . things do not gain meaning by going on for a very long time, or even forever. Indeed, they lose it. A piece of music, a conversation, even a glance of adoration or a moment of unity have their alloted time. Too much and they become boring. An infinity and they would be intolerable."Political struggle for immortalityThough a lot of scientists state that radical life extension, delaying and stopping aging are achievable there are still no an international or national programs focused on stopping ageing or on radical life extension. There are political forces staying for and against immortality. In 2012 in Russia, and then in USA, Israel and Netherlands the pro-immortality Longevity political parties were launched. They aimed to provide political support to anti-ageing and radical life extension research and technologies and want to ensure fastest possible and at the same time soft society transition to the next step -radical life extension, life without ageing, and finally - immortality and aim to make it possible to provide the access to such technologies to the most of the currently living people. Symbols
There are numerous symbols representing immortality. Pictured here is an Egyptian symbol of life that holds connotations of immortality when depicted in the hands of the gods and pharaohs who were seen as having control over the journey of life, the ankh (left). The Möbius strip in the shape of a trefoil knot is another symbol of immortality. Most symbolic representations of infinity or the life cycle are often used to represent immortality depending on the context they are placed in. Other examples include the Ouroboros, the Chinese fungus of longevity, the ten kanji, the phoenix, thepeacock in Christianity, and the colors amaranth (in Western culture) and peach (in Chinese culture).
Ankh Trefoil Knot